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                                                    BBC News: 每逢佳節胖三斤?可能是你腸道的微生物太高效了......

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                                                    2023年01月05日

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                                                    Microbes could be to blame for gaining weight at Christmas
                                                    每逢佳節胖三斤?可能是你腸道的微生物太高效了......


                                                    Researchers have studied how much energy Danish people take from their food, based on analysis of their feces and the microbes within. They found roughly 40 percent of the participants have microbes that on average extract more energy from food compared to the other 60 percent.
                                                    新的研究發現,約40%參與者腸胃中的微生物會從食物中提取更多的能量,從而導致發胖。研究人員根據對丹麥人的糞便及其中微生物的分析,研究了他們從食物中獲取多少能量。
                                                     
                                                    The new study, published in the journal Microbiome, was led by experts at the University of Copenhagen's Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports.
                                                    這篇研究發表在《微生物組》雜志上,由哥本哈根大學營養、運動與體育系的專家主導。
                                                     
                                                    "We may have found a key to understanding why some people gain more weight than others, even when they don't eat more or any differently, but this needs to be investigated further," said study author Professor Henrik Roager.
                                                    研究報告作者亨利克•羅格教授表示:“我們可能找到了一些人體重增加的關鍵,盡管他們沒有吃得更多或有任何不同,但是還需要進一步調查。”
                                                     
                                                    For the study, the experts analyzed the gut microbiota – the trillion-strong community of microorganisms in the gut – from participants' stool samples.
                                                    在這項研究中,專家們分析了參與者的糞便樣本中的腸道微生物群,腸道中有數萬億的微生物群。
                                                     
                                                    The researchers describe the gut microbiota "like an entire galaxy in our gut", with a staggering 100 billion of them per gram of feces.
                                                    研究人員將腸道微生物群描述為“腸道中的整個星系”,每克糞便中有驚人的1000億種微生物。
                                                     
                                                    The research team studied the residual energy in the feces of 85 overweight Danes aged 22 to 66 to estimate how effective their gut microbes were at extracting energy from food.
                                                    研究小組研究了85名22至66歲的超重丹麥人的糞便中的殘留能量,以估計他們的腸道微生物從食物中提取能量的效率如何。
                                                     
                                                    At the same time, they mapped the composition of gut microbes for each participant.
                                                    同時,他們繪制了每個參與者的腸道微生物組成圖。
                                                     
                                                    Participants were divided into three groups, based on the composition of their gut microbes — "B-type", "R-type" and "P-type".
                                                    參與者根據其腸道微生物的組成被分為三組:“B型”、“R型”和“P型”。

                                                    B-type has repeatedly been linked with a Western lifestyle low in microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs) typically found in fruits and vegetables, compared with P-type, for example, linked with a diet rich in MACs.
                                                    B型的碳水化合物(MACs)含量較低,這種類型可以與西方的生活方式聯系在一起,這些碳水化合物通常存在于水果和蔬菜中,而P型則與富含碳水化合物的飲食有關。
                                                     
                                                    The so-called B-type composition, seen in 40 per cent of the participants, was more effective at extracting nutrients from food, the experts found.
                                                    專家們發現,在40%的參與者中看到的所謂B型成分,更有效地從食物中提取營養物質。
                                                     
                                                    The researchers also found that those who extracted the most energy from food weighed 10 percent more on average, amounting to an extra nine kilograms.
                                                    研究人員還發現,那些從食物中提取最多能量的人平均體重增加了10%,相當于多了9公斤。
                                                     
                                                    The effectiveness of extracting nutrients in B-type people may result in more calories being available from the same amount of food – possibly leading to obesity.
                                                    在B型人中,提取營養物質的有效性使他們從相同數量的食物中獲得更多的熱量,從而可能導致肥胖。
                                                     
                                                    "Bacteria's metabolism of food provides extra energy in the form of short-chain fatty acids – molecules that our body can use as energy-supplying fuel," said Professor Roager. "But if we consume more than we burn, the extra energy provided by the intestinal bacteria may increase the risk of obesity over time."
                                                    羅格教授稱,“細菌對食物的新陳代謝以短鏈脂肪酸等形式提供額外的能量,我們的身體可以把這些分子作為供能的燃料”。但是,“如果我們的攝入量超過了消耗量,那么隨著時間的推移,腸道細菌提供的額外能量可能會增加肥胖的風險”。
                                                     
                                                    Although the scientists only used a small sample of Danish participants, it's possible the findings could be applied to other global populations.
                                                    盡管科學家們只使用了來自丹麥參與者的少數樣本,但這一發現或適用于全球其他人口。
                                                     
                                                    Overall, the results indicate that being overweight might not just be related to how healthily one eats or the amount of exercise one gets, but it may also have something to do with the microbes in our gut.
                                                    總的來說,研究結果表明,超重可能不僅僅與一個人的飲食健康程度或運動量有關,還可能與人體腸道中的微生物有關系。

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